ES-FSG-FO-00218-WD

Optimizing outcomes in EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC: which tyrosine kinase inhibitor & when? Review References Papers of special note have been highlighted as: • of interest; •• of considerable interest 1. Chan BA, Hughes BG. Targeted therapy for non-small cell lung cancer: current standards and the promise of the future. Transl. Lung Cancer Res. 4(1), 36–54 (2015). 2. Torti D, Trusolino L. Oncogene addiction as a foundational rationale for targeted anti-cancer therapy: promises and perils. EMBO Mol. Med. 3(11), 623–636 (2011). 3. Marshall J. Clinical implications of the mechanism of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. Cancer 107(6), 1207–1218 (2006). 4. Novello S, Barlesi F, Califano R et al. Metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann. Oncol. 27(Suppl. 5), v1–v27 (2016). 5. Solca F, Dahl G, Zoephel A et al. Target binding properties and cellular activity of afatinib (BIBW 2992), an irreversible ErbB family blocker. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 343(2), 342–350 (2012). 6. Sequist LV, Waltman BA, Dias-Santagata D et al. Genotypic and histological evolution of lung cancers acquiring resistance to EGFR inhibitors. Sci. Transl. Med. 3(75), 75ra26 (2011). 7. Yang JC, Ahn MJ, Kim DW et al. Osimertinib in pretreated T790M-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: AURA study Phase II extension component. J. Clin. Oncol. 35(12), 1288–1296 (2017). •• AURA Phase II extension, showing the presence of T790M mutation in up to 70% of patients who had experienced disease progression on first-line afatinib, erlotinib or gefitinib. 8. Janne PA, Yang JC, Kim DW et al. AZD9291 in EGFR inhibitor-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 372(18), 1689–1699 (2015). 9. Mok TS, Wu YL, Ahn MJ et al. Osimertinib or platinum-pemetrexed in EGFR T790M-positive lung cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 376(7), 629–640 (2017). •• AURA3 randomized trial, which showed that osimertinib prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) compared with chemotherapy in patients with T790M-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had experienced disease progression during first-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. 10. Soria JC, Ohe Y, Vansteenkiste J et al. Osimertinib in untreated EGFR-mutated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. doi:10.1056 / NEJMoa1713137, (2017) (Epub ahead of print). •• First presentation of the FLAURA data, which showed that osimertinib, a third-generation TKI, demonstrated improved PFS compared with the first-generation TKIs, erlotinib or gefitinib, in the first-line setting. 11. Zhou C, Wu YL, Chen G et al. Erlotinib versus chemotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (OPTIMAL, CTONG-0802): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, Phase III study. Lancet Oncol. 12(8), 735–742 (2011). 12. Rosell R, Carcereny E, Gervais R et al. Erlotinib versus standard chemotherapy as first-line treatment for European patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (EURTAC): a multicentre, open-label, randomised Phase III trial. Lancet Oncol. 13(3), 239–246 (2012). 13. Wu YL, Zhou C, Liam CK et al. First-line erlotinib versus gemcitabine / cisplatin in patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer: analyses from the Phase III, randomized, open-label, ENSURE study. Ann. Oncol. 26(9), 1883–1889 (2015). 14. Mok TS, Wu YL, Thongprasert S et al. Gefitinib or carboplatin-paclitaxel in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 361(10), 947–957 (2009). 15. Mitsudomi T, Morita S, Yatabe Y et al. Gefitinib versus cisplatin plus docetaxel in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer harbouring mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (WJTOG3405): an open label, randomised Phase III trial. 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Final overall survival results of WJTOG 3405, a randomized Phase III trial comparing gefitinib (G) with cisplatin plus docetaxel (CD) as the first-line treatment for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). J. Clin. Oncol. 32(Suppl. 15), 8117 (2014). 20. Zhou C, Wu YL, Chen G et al. Final overall survival results from a randomised, Phase III study of erlotinib versus chemotherapy as first-line treatment of EGFR mutation-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (OPTIMAL, CTONG-0802). Ann. Oncol. 26(9), 1877–1883 (2015). future science group 10.2217/fon-2017-0636

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